Effects of the difference in the unfolded-state ensemble on the folding of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.


The unfolded state of a protein is an ensemble of a large number of conformations ranging from fully extended to compact structures. To investigate the effects of the difference in the unfolded-state ensemble on protein folding, we have studied the structure, stability, and folding of "circular" dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli in which the N and C-terminal regions are cross-linked by a disulfide bond, and compared the results with those of disulfide-reduced "linear" DHFR. Equilibrium studies by circular dichroism, difference absorption spectra, solution X-ray scattering, and size-exclusion chromatography show that whereas the native structures of both proteins are essentially the same, the unfolded state of circular DHFR adopts more compact conformations than the unfolded state of the linear form, even with the absence of secondary structure. Circular DHFR is more stable than linear DHFR, which may be due to the decrease in the conformational entropy of the unfolded state as a result of circularization. Kinetic refolding measurements by stopped-flow circular dichroism and fluorescence show that under the native conditions both proteins accumulate a burst-phase intermediate having the same structures and both fold by the same complex folding mechanism with the same folding rates. Thus, the effects of the difference in the unfolded state of circular and linear DHFRs on the refolding reaction are not observed after the formation of the intermediate. This suggests that for the proteins with close termini in the native structure, early compaction of a protein molecule to form a specific folding intermediate with the N and C-terminal regions in close proximity is a crucial event in folding. If there is an enhancement in the folding reflecting the reduction in the breadth of the unfolded-state ensemble for circular DHFR, this acceleration must occur in the sub-millisecond time-range. Study holds ProTherm entries: 16275, 16276 Extra Details: (i) 0.2mM K2EDTA was added in the experiment,(ii) Circular DHFR, which is mutated amino acids, C85A/C152S and has extended amino acid residues at N and C termini with C-C bond between them. protein folding; dihydrofolate reductase; circular protein; folding intermediate;,unfolded state

Submission Details

ID: za8bCwon3

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:47 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Arai M;Kataoka M;Kuwajima K;Matthews CR;Iwakura M,J. Mol. Biol. (2003) Effects of the difference in the unfolded-state ensemble on the folding of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase. PMID:12787677
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
100.0 Dihydrofolate reductase P0ABQ5 DYR_ECOL6
100.0 Dihydrofolate reductase P0ABQ4 DYR_ECOLI
100.0 Dihydrofolate reductase P0ABQ6 DYR_SHIFL
96.2 Dihydrofolate reductase P31073 DYR_CITFR
91.8 Dihydrofolate reductase P31074 DYR_KLEAE