The folding of an enzyme. III. Structure of the transition state for unfolding of barnase analysed by a protein engineering procedure.


Abstract

The structure of the first significant transition state on the unfolding pathway of barnase has been analysed in detail by protein engineering methods. Over 50 mutations placed strategically over the whole protein have been used as probes to report on the local structure in the transition state. Several different probes for many regions of the protein give consistent results as do multiple probes at the same site. The overall consistency of phi values indicates that the mutations have not produced changes in the protein that significantly alter the transition state for unfolding. A fine-structure analysis of interactions has also been conducted by removing different parts of the same side-chains. Many of the results of simple mutations fall nicely into the two clear-cut cases of phi = 1 or 0, indicating that the local noncovalent bonds are either fully broken or fully made in the transition state. Much of the structure of barnase in the transition state for unfolding is very similar to that in the folded protein. Both major alpha-helices fray at the N terminus. The last two turns in helix1 are certainly intact, as is the C terminus of helix2. The general picture of the beta-sheet is that the three central beta-strands are completely intact while the two edge beta-strands are mainly present but certainly weakened. The first five residues of the protein unwind but the C terminus remains folded. Three of the five loops are unfolded. The edges of the main hydrophobic core (core1) are significantly weakened, however, and their breaking appears partly rate determining. The centre of the small hydrophobic core3 remains intact. Core2 is completely disrupted. The first events in unfolding are thus: the unfolding of several loops, the unwinding of the helices from the N termini, and the weakening and disruption of the hydrophobic cores. The values of phi are found to be substantially the same under conditions that favour folding as under conditions that are highly denaturing, and so the structure of the unfolding transition state is substantially the same in water as in the presence of denaturant. The structure of the final kinetically significant transition state for refolding is identical to that for unfolding. The final events in refolding are, accordingly, the consolidation of the hydrophobic cores, the closing of many loops and the capping of the N termini of the helices. Study holds ProTherm entries: 9977, 9978, 9979, 9980, 9981, 9982, 9983, 9984, 9985, 9986, 9987, 9988, 9989, 9990, 9991, 9992, 9993, 9994, 9995, 9996, 9997, 9998, 9999, 10000, 10001, 10002, 10003, 10004, 10005, 10006, 10007, 10008, 10009, 10010, 10011, 10012, 10013, 10014, 10015, 10016, 10017, 10018, 10019 Extra Details: protein folding; stability; hydrophobic; secondary structure

Submission Details

ID: zM8mJs2K

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:39 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Serrano L;Matouschek A;Fersht AR,J. Mol. Biol. (1992) The folding of an enzyme. III. Structure of the transition state for unfolding of barnase analysed by a protein engineering procedure. PMID:1569558
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P
 

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)


Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
2KF5 2009-12-08 Barnase bound to d(CGAC), low pressure
2KF6 2009-12-08 Barnase bound to d(CGAC) high pressure
1BNR 1995-07-31 BARNASE
1FW7 2003-06-10 NMR STRUCTURE OF 15N-LABELED BARNASE
2KF4 2009-12-08 Barnase high pressure structure
2KF3 2009-12-08 Barnase, low pressure reference NMR structure
2C4B 2005-11-21 1.3 Inhibitor cystine knot protein McoEeTI fused to the catalytically inactive barnase mutant H102A
1A2P 1998-04-29 1.5 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT 1.5 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
2ZA4 2008-05-20 1.58 Crystal Structural Analysis of Barnase-barstar Complex
1B20 1998-12-09 1.7 DELETION OF A BURIED SALT-BRIDGE IN BARNASE
1BRN 1994-01-31 1.76 SUBSITE BINDING IN AN RNASE: STRUCTURE OF A BARNASE-TETRANUCLEOTIDE COMPLEX AT 1.76 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
1B2X 1998-12-09 1.8 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT PH 7.5 FROM A CRYO_COOLED CRYSTAL AT 100K
1B2S 1998-12-08 1.82 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
1X1Y 2005-04-26 1.9 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1RNB 1992-07-15 1.9 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A BARNASE-D(*GP*C) COMPLEX AT 1.9 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
1BRI 1995-07-10 1.9 BARNASE MUTANT WITH ILE 76 REPLACED BY ALA
3KCH 2010-03-09 1.94 Baranase crosslinked by glutaraldehyde
2F5M 2006-04-25 1.95 Cross-linked barnase soaked in bromo-ethanol
2F56 2006-04-25 1.96 Barnase cross-linked with glutaraldehyde soaked in 6M urea
1BSA 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
2F5W 2006-04-25 2.0 Cross-linked barnase soaked in 3 M thiourea
1BSC 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1BRH 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE MUTANT WITH LEU 14 REPLACED BY ALA
1BSE 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1BRK 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE MUTANT WITH ILE 96 REPLACED BY ALA
1BSB 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1B21 1998-12-09 2.0 DELETION OF A BURIED SALT BRIDGE IN BARNASE
1BRS 1994-06-22 2.0 PROTEIN-PROTEIN RECOGNITION: CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A BARNASE-BARSTAR COMPLEX AT 2.0-A RESOLUTION
1BRJ 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE MUTANT WITH ILE 88 REPLACED BY ALA
1BNF 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE T70C/S92C DISULFIDE MUTANT
1B2Z 1998-12-09 2.03 DELETION OF A BURIED SALT BRIDGE IN BARNASE
1BNS 1994-06-22 2.05 STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF BARNASE MUTANTS
1BNJ 1995-09-15 2.1 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT PH 9.0
1B2U 1998-12-09 2.1 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
1X1W 2005-04-26 2.1 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1BNE 1995-07-10 2.1 BARNASE A43C/S80C DISULFIDE MUTANT
1BNG 1995-07-10 2.1 BARNASE S85C/H102C DISULFIDE MUTANT
1BNI 1995-09-15 2.1 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT PH 6.0
1B27 1998-12-09 2.1 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
2F4Y 2006-04-25 2.15 Barnase cross-linked with glutaraldehyde
3Q3F 2012-01-25 2.17 Engineering Domain-Swapped Binding Interfaces by Mutually Exclusive Folding: Insertion of Ubiquitin into position 103 of Barnase
1BAO 1993-10-31 2.2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF BURIED HYDROGEN BONDS TO PROTEIN STABILITY: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF TWO BARNASE MUTANTS
1YVS 1999-02-02 2.2 Trimeric domain swapped barnase
1BRG 1994-06-22 2.2 CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF PHE->LEU SUBSTITUTION IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORE OF BARNASE
1BAN 1993-10-31 2.2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF BURIED HYDROGEN BONDS TO PROTEIN STABILITY: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF TWO BARNASE MUTANTS
3DA7 2009-04-14 2.25 A conformationally strained, circular permutant of barnase
1X1X 2005-04-26 2.3 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1BSD 1994-01-31 2.3 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1X1U 2005-04-26 2.3 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1B3S 1998-12-09 2.39 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
1BGS 1994-04-30 2.6 RECOGNITION BETWEEN A BACTERIAL RIBONUCLEASE, BARNASE, AND ITS NATURAL INHIBITOR, BARSTAR

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
97.3 Ribonuclease P35078 RN_BACCI
100.0 Ribonuclease P00648 RNBR_BACAM