Molecular collapse: the rate-limiting step in two-state cytochrome c folding.


Abstract

Experiments with cytochrome c (cyt c) show that an initial folding event, molecular collapse, is not an energetically downhill continuum as commonly presumed but represents a large-scale, time-consuming, cooperative barrier-crossing process. In the absence of later misfold-reorganization barriers, the early collapse barrier limits cyt c folding to a time scale of milliseconds. The collapse process itself appears to be limited by an uphill search for some coarsely determined transition state structure that can nucleate subsequent energetically downhill folding events. An earlier "burst phase" event at strongly native conditions appears to be a non-specific response of the unfolded chain to reduced denaturant concentration. The molecular collapse process may or may not require the co-formation of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal helices, which are present in an initial metastable intermediate directly following the rate-limiting collapse. After the collapse-nucleation event, folding can proceed rapidly in an apparent two-state manner, probably by way of a predetermined sequence of metastable intermediates that leads to the native protein structure (Bai et al., Science 269:192-197, 1995). Study holds ProTherm entries: 11311 Extra Details: protein folding; folding kinetics; folding barriers

Submission Details

ID: wMAFJUUi3

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:42 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Sosnick TR;Mayne L;Englander SW,Proteins (1996) Molecular collapse: the rate-limiting step in two-state cytochrome c folding. PMID:9162942
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P
 

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)


Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
1KTD 2002-01-15T00:00:00+0000 2.4 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CLASS II MHC MOLECULE IEK BOUND TO PIGEON CYTOCHROME C PEPTIDE
2B4Z 2005-09-27T00:00:00+0000 1.5 Crystal structure of cytochrome C from bovine heart at 1.5 A resolution.
2YBB 2011-03-02T00:00:00+0000 19.0 Fitted model for bovine mitochondrial supercomplex I1III2IV1 by single particle cryo-EM (EMD-1876)
3J2T 2012-12-23T00:00:00+0000 9.5 An improved model of the human apoptosome
5C0Z 2015-06-12T00:00:00+0000 1.12 The structure of oxidized rat cytochrome c at 1.13 angstroms resolution
5C9M 2015-06-28T00:00:00+0000 1.36 The structure of oxidized rat cytochrome c (T28A) at 1.362 angstroms resolution.
5DF5 2015-08-26T00:00:00+0000 1.3 The structure of oxidized rat cytochrome c (T28E) at 1.30 angstroms resolution.
5JUY 2016-05-10T00:00:00+0000 4.1 Active human apoptosome with procaspase-9
6FF5 2018-01-03T00:00:00+0000 1.74 X-ray structure of bovine heart cytochrome c at high ionic strength
6N1O 2018-11-09T00:00:00+0000 1.55 Oxidized rat cytochrome c mutant (S47E)

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
91.3 Cytochrome c P00021 CYC_COLLI
92.2 Cytochrome c P00020 CYC_ANAPL
92.3 Cytochrome c P81280 CYC_ALLMI
90.5 Cytochrome c Q52V10 CYC_SAISC
93.3 Cytochrome c P00012 CYC_MIRLE
93.3 Cytochrome c Q52V09 CYC_CEPBA
93.3 Cytochrome c P00013 CYC_MINSC
93.3 Cytochrome c P00014 CYC_MACGI
94.3 Cytochrome c P00011 CYC_CANLF
94.3 Cytochrome c P62898 CYC_RAT
94.3 Cytochrome c P00008 CYC_RABIT
94.3 Cytochrome c P62897 CYC_MOUSE
95.2 Cytochrome c P68098 CYC_LAMGU
95.2 Cytochrome c P68100 CYC_ESCRO
95.2 Cytochrome c P68099 CYC_CAMDR
94.3 Cytochrome c P00007 CYC_HIPAM
97.1 Cytochrome c P62896 CYC_SHEEP
97.1 Cytochrome c P62895 CYC_PIG
97.1 Cytochrome c P62894 CYC_BOVIN
99.0 Cytochrome c P68096 CYC_EQUBU
99.0 Cytochrome c P68097 CYC_EQUAS
100.0 Cytochrome c P00004 CYC_HORSE
90.3 Cytochrome c B4USV4 CYC_OTOGA