Second-site revertants of an inactive T4 lysozyme mutant restore activity by restructuring the active site cleft.


Abstract

Substitution of Thr26 by Gln in the lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 produces an enzyme with greatly reduced activity but essentially unaltered stability relative to wild type. Spontaneous second-site revertants of the mutant were selected genetically; two of them were chosen for structural and biochemical characterization. One revertant bears (in addition to the primary mutation) the substitution Tyr18----His, the other, Tyr18----Asp. The primary mutant and both revertant lysozyme genes were reconstructed in a plasmid-based expression system, and the proteins were produced and purified. The two revertant lysozymes exhibit enzymatic activities intermediate between wild type and the primary mutant; both also exhibit melting temperatures approximately 3 degrees C lower than either the wild type or the primary mutant. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained from both revertant lysozymes, but not the primary mutant. Structures of the double mutant lysozymes were refined at 1.8-A resolution to crystallographic residuals of 15.1% (Tyr18----His) and 15.2% (Tyr18----Asp). Model building suggests that the side chain of Gln26 in the primary mutant is forced to protrude into the active site cleft, resulting in low catalytic activity. In contrast, the crystal structures of the revertants reveal that the double substitutions (Gln26 and His18, or Gln26 and Asp18) fit into the same space that is occupied by Thr26 and Tyr18 in the wild-type enzyme; the effect is a restructuring of the surface of the active site cleft, with essentially no perturbation of the polypeptide backbone. This restructuring is effected by a novel series of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions that apparently stabilize the revertant structures. Study holds ProTherm entries: 1257, 1258, 1259, 1260 Extra Details: T4 lysozyme; activity; hydrogen bonds; stability;,electrostatic interactions; active site

Submission Details

ID: usAw3DGT3

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:17 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Poteete AR;Sun DP;Nicholson H;Matthews BW,Biochemistry (1991) Second-site revertants of an inactive T4 lysozyme mutant restore activity by restructuring the active site cleft. PMID:1991123
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