The kinetics of the reversible folding and unfolding of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase have been studied by stopped-flow circular dichroism in the peptide region at pH 7.8 and 15 degrees C. The reactions were induced by concentration jumps of a denaturant, urea. The method can detect various intermediates transiently populated in the reactions although the equilibrium unfolding of the protein is apparently approximated by a two-state reaction. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) From transient circular dichroism spectra measured as soon as the refolding is started, a substantial amount of secondary structure is formed in the burst phase, i.e., within the dead time of stopped-flow mixing (18 ms). (2) The kinetics from this burst-phase intermediate to the native state are multiphasic, consisting of five phases designated as tau 1, tau 2, tau 3, tau 4, and tau 5 in increasing order of the reaction rate. Measurements of the kinetics at various wavelengths have provided kinetic difference circular dichroism spectra for the individual phases. (3) The tau 5 phase shows a kinetic difference spectrum consistent with an exciton contribution of two aromatic residues in the peptide CD region. The absence of the tau 5 phase in a mutant protein, in which Trp 74 is replaced by leucine, suggests that Trp 74 is involved in the exciton pair and that the tau 5 phase reflects the formation of a hydrophobic cluster around Trp 74. From the similarity of the kinetic difference spectrum to the difference between the native spectra of the mutant and wild-type proteins, it appears that Trp 47 is the partner in the exciton pair and that the structure formed in the tau 5 phase persists during the later stages of folding. (4) The later stages of folding show kinetic difference spectra that can be interpreted by rearrangement of secondary structure, particularly the central beta sheet of the protein. The pairwise similarities in the spectrum between the tau 3 and tau 4 phases, and between the tau 1 and tau 2 phases, also suggest the presence of two parallel folding channels for refolding. (5) The unfolding kinetics show three to four phases and are interpreted in terms of the presence of multiple native species. The total ellipticity change in kinetic unfolding reaction, however, agrees with the ellipticity difference between the native and unfolding states, indicating the absence of the burst phase in unfolding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Study holds ProTherm entries: 4002 Extra Details: two-state reaction; burst phase; aromatic residues; exciton pair;,secondary structure; hydrophobic cluster; folding channels
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:24 p.m.
|Number of data points||2|
|Proteins||Dihydrofolate reductase ; Dihydrofolate reductase|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence MISLIAALAVDRVIGMENAMPWNLPADLAWFKRNTLDKPVIMGRHTWESIGRPLPGRKNIILSSQPGTDDRVTWVKSVDEAIAACGDVPEIMVIGGGRVYEQFLPKAQKLYLTHIDAEVEGDTHFPDYEPDDWESVFSEFHDADAQNSHSYCFEILERR|