Folding reaction of goat alpha-lactalbumin has been studied by stopped-flow circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of four single mutations and a double mutation on the stability of the protein under a native condition were studied. The mutations were introduced into residues located at a hydrophobic core in the alpha-domain of the molecule. Here we show that an amino acid substitution (T29I) increases the native-state stability of goat alpha-lactalbumin against the guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding by 3.5 kcal/mol. Kinetic refolding and unfolding of wild-type and mutant goat alpha-lactalbumin measured by stopped-flow circular dichroism showed that the local structure around the Thr29 side chain was not constructed in the transition state of the folding reaction. To characterize the local structural change around the Thr29 side chain to an atomic level of resolution, we performed high-temperature (at 400 K and 600 K) molecular dynamics simulations and studied the structural change at an initial stage of unfolding observed in the simulation trajectories. The Thr29 portion of the molecule experienced structural disruption accompanied with the loss of inter-residue contacts and with the water molecule penetration in the 400-K simulation as well as in four of the six 600-K simulations. Disruption of the N-terminal portion was also observed and was consistent with the results of kinetic refolding/unfolding experiments shown in our previous report. Study holds ProTherm entries: 10500, 10501, 10502, 10503, 10504, 10505 Extra Details: protein folding; transition state; hydrophobic core;,high-temperature simulation; early stage of unfolding
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:40 p.m.
|Number of data points||23|
|Proteins||Alpha-lactalbumin ; Alpha-lactalbumin|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence EQLTKCEVFQKLKDLKDYGGVSLPEWVCTAFHTSGYDTQAIVQNNDSTEYGLFQINNKIWCKDDQNPHSRNICNISCDKFLDDDLTDDIVCAKKILDKVGINYWLAHKALCSEKLDQWLCEKL|