Effect of salts on the stability and folding of staphylococcal nuclease.


The stability and folding kinetics of wild-type and a mutant staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) at neutral pH are significantly perturbed by the presence of moderate to high concentrations of salts. Very substantial increases in stability toward thermal and urea denaturation were observed; for example, 0.4 M sodium sulfate increased the free energy of wild-type SNase by more than 2 kcal/mol. For the NCA SNase mutant, the presence of the salts abolished the cold denaturation observed at neutral pH with this variant, and substantially increased its stability. Significant effects of salts on the kinetics of refolding were also observed. For NCA SNase, the presence of the salts markedly increased the folding rates (up to 5-fold). On the other hand, chloride, in particular, substantially decreased the rate of folding of the wild-type protein. Since the rates of the slow phases due to proline isomerization were increased by salt, these steps must be coupled to conformational processes. Fluorescence energy transfer between the lone tryptophan (Trp140) and an engineered fluorescent acceptor at residue 64 revealed that the addition of a high concentration of KCl led to the formation of a transient folding intermediate not observed at lower salt concentrations, and in which residues 140 and 64 were much closer than in the native state. The salt-induced effects on the kinetics of folding are attributed to the enhanced stability of the transient folding intermediates. It is likely that the combination of the high net charge, due to the high isoelectric point, and the relatively low intrinsic hydrophobicity, leads to staphylococcal nuclease having only marginal stability at neutral pH. The salt-induced effects on the structure, stability, and kinetics of staphylococcal nuclease are attributed to the binding of counterions, namely, anions, resulting in minimization of intramolecular electrostatic repulsion. This leads to increased stability, more structure, and greater compactness, as observed. Consequently, localized electrostatic repulsion is present at neutral pH in SNase, probably contributing to its marginal stability. The results suggest that, in general, marginally stable globular proteins will be significantly stabilized by salts under conditions where they have a substantial net charge. Study holds ProTherm entries: 10840, 10841, 10842 Extra Details:

Submission Details

ID: jfS4aQpf

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:41 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Nishimura C;Uversky VN;Fink AL,Biochemistry (2001) Effect of salts on the stability and folding of staphylococcal nuclease. PMID:11329280
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)

Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
4WRD 2014-10-23T00:00:00+0000 1.65 Crystal structure of Staphylcoccal nulease variant Delta+PHS V66E L125E at cryogenic temperature
2LKV 2011-10-21T00:00:00+0000 0 Staphylococcal Nuclease PHS variant
2M00 2012-10-14T00:00:00+0000 0 Solution structure of staphylococcal nuclease E43S mutant in the presence of ssDNA and Cd2+
2OXP 2007-02-20T00:00:00+0000 2.0 Crystal Structure of Staphylococcal Nuclease mutant V66D/P117G/H124L/S128A
3D4W 2008-05-15T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS A109R at cryogenic temperature
3D8G 2008-05-23T00:00:00+0000 1.99 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS I72R at cryogenic temperature
3MVV 2010-05-04T00:00:00+0000 1.72 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS F34A at cryogenic temperature
3QOJ 2011-02-10T00:00:00+0000 1.6 Cryogenic structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant D+PHS/V23K
3QOL 2011-02-10T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant D+PHS/V23E at pH 6 determined at 100 K
3R3O 2011-03-16T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS T62A at cryogenic temperature and with high redundancy

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
99.3 Thermonuclease Q6GIK1 NUC_STAAR
99.3 Thermonuclease Q8NXI6 NUC_STAAW
99.3 Thermonuclease Q6GB41 NUC_STAAS
99.1 Thermonuclease Q7A6P2 NUC_STAAN
99.1 Thermonuclease Q99VJ0 NUC_STAAM
99.3 Thermonuclease Q5HHM4 NUC_STAAC
100.0 Thermonuclease P00644 NUC_STAAU