Folding kinetics of a series of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) variants with similar stabilities and structures have been measured. All are strongly destabilized relative to WT. In Y21A, F22A, Y23A, G37A, and F45A, the three native disulfide bonds are retained. In RM(14-38), Cys14 and Cys38 thiols are methylated while C30-C51 and C5-C55 disulfides remain intact. At pH 2 and 20 degrees C, relaxation rate constants of the major kinetic phase range from approximately 10 ms to 0.71 s in the absence of denaturant. All mutants except G37A exhibit standard two-state behavior. Y21A, F22A, and Y23A fold much more slowly than other mutants. The experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that native-like structure detected in the unfolded BPTI is important in folding. Two native-like contacts are implied by NOEs in reduced and unfolded BPTI, between residues Tyr23 and Ala25, and between Gly37 NH and the Tyr35 ring. The results support an earlier hypothesis that formation of the central beta-hairpin, monitored by a local native interaction between Tyr23 and Ala25, is crucial to initiation of BPTI folding. The second native-like contact is important, not in folding initiation, but in preventing a kinetic trap later in the process. Evidence for this comes from mutant G37A, which behaves very differently from the others in displaying a phenomenon called rollover. G37A is, to our knowledge, the first reported case in which a single-site replacement causes rollover, while the wild type and all other known mutants of the same protein show typical two-state chevron plots. The best explanation is that the G37A mutation introduces a kinetic trap of the type described by Chan and Dill [(1998) Proteins 30, 2-33]. In native BPTI, there is an unusual polar interaction between the ring of Tyr35 and the backbone NH of Gly37. Our results suggest that the NH-aromatic interaction between residues 37 and 35 is important throughout folding in stabilizing native-like loop conformations and in preventing the flexible loops from being trapped in nonfunctional conformations during later stages of folding. Study holds ProTherm entries: 12816, 12817, 12818, 12819, 12820 Extra Details: disulfide bonds; beta-hairpin; polar interaction; aromatic interaction
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:44 p.m.
|Number of data points||20|
|Proteins||Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor ; Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence RPDFCLEPPYTGPCKARIIRYFYNAKAGLCQTFVYGGCRAKRNNFKSAEDCMRTCGGA|