Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a cytokine and a member of the beta-trefoil superfamily of protein structures. An interesting feature in the folding of IL-1 beta, shared with some other members of the same topological family, is the existence of a slow step in folding to the native conformation from a discrete intermediate. Wanting to probe the nature of this slow step in the folding of WT IL-1 beta (tau(1)=45 seconds), we made ten sequence variants of IL-1 beta (L10A, T9Q, T9G, C8S, C8A, N7G, N7D, L6A, R4P, and R4Q), where all mutations are located along strand 1. This strand is not protected from hydrogen exchange until late in folding. Most of the mutations showed little effect on the kinetics of folding for IL-1 beta. However, C8 is clearly involved in both the late and the early steps in folding, while sequence variants at L10 and L6 affect only late events in folding. The value of the slowest relaxation time, tau(1), which is associated with the rate of native protein formation, increased for the refolding of C8S, while C8A, L6A, and L10A showed smaller but systematic increases in the value of tau(1.)For both C8S and C8A, the value of the step associated with formation of the intermediate, tau(2), was independent of denaturant concentration. In addition, mutations in the hydrophobic core (L10A, C8A, C8S, and L6A) and, surprisingly, along the surface (T9G, T9Q, and N7G) alter the stability. The most destabilizing mutations show changes in equilibrium unfolding cooperativity, which is atypical for destabilizing mutations in IL-1 beta. Crystallographic studies indicate that mutations along strand 1 may alter the number of ordered water molecules within the core. Thus, side-chain replacement in this region can disrupt essential main-chain interactions mediated by ordered water contacts in a highly cooperative network of hydrogen bonding. Study holds ProTherm entries: 10867, 10868, 10869, 10870, 10871, 10872, 10873, 10874, 10875, 10876, 10877 Extra Details: folding; stability; hydration; mutagenesis; beta-trefoil
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:41 p.m.
|Number of data points||32|
|Proteins||Interleukin-1 beta ; Interleukin-1 beta|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence APVRSLNCTLRDSQQKSLVMSGPYELKALHLQGQDMEQQVVFSMSFVQGEESNDKIPVALGLKEKNLYLSCVLKDDKPTLQLESVDPKNYPKKKMEKRFVFNKIEINNKLEFESAQFPNWYISTSQAENMPVFLGGTKGGQDITDFTMQFVSS|