Escherichia coli thioredoxin folds into two compact forms of different stability to urea denaturation.


The urea-induced denaturation of Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin variants has been examined by electrophoresis on urea gradient slab gels by the method of Creighton [Creighton, T. (1986) Methods Enzymol. 131, 156-172]. Thioredoxin has only two cysteine residues, and these form a redox-active disulfide at the active site. Oxidized thioredoxin-S2 and reduced thioredoxin-(SH)2 each show two folded isomers with a large difference in stability to urea denaturation. The difference in stability is greater for the isomers of oxidized than for the isomers of reduced thioredoxin. At 2 degrees C, the urea concentrations at the denaturation midpoint are approximately 8 and 4.3 M for the oxidized isomers and 4.8 and 3.7 M for the reduced isomers. The difference between the gel patterns of samples applied in native versus denaturing buffer, and at 2 and 25 degrees C, is characteristic for the involvement of a cis-proline-trans-proline isomerization. The data very strongly suggest that the two folded forms of different stabilities correspond to the cis and trans isomers of the highly conserved Pro 76 peptide bond, which is cis in the crystal structure of oxidized thioredoxin. Urea gel experiments with the mutant thioredoxin P76A, with alanine substituted for proline at position 76, corroborate this interpretation. The electrophoretic banding pattern diagnostic for an involvement of proline isomerization in urea denaturation is not observed for oxidized P76A. In broad estimates of delta G degree for the native-denatured transition, the difference in delta G degree (no urea) between the putative cis and trans isomers of the Ile 75-Pro 76 peptide bond is approximately 3 kcal/mol for oxidized thioredoxin and approximately 1.5 kcal/mol for reduced thioredoxin. Since cis oxidized thioredoxin is much more stable than trans, folded oxidized thioredoxin is essentially all cis. In folded reduced thioredoxin, cis and trans interconvert slowly, on the minute time scale at 2 and 25 degrees C. In the absence of urea, the folded reduced thioredoxin is less than a few percent trans. Three additional mutants with additions or substitutions at the active site also show electrophoresis banding patterns consistent with a difference in stability between cis and trans isomers. Study holds ProTherm entries: 3802, 3803 Extra Details: redox-active disulfide; cis-proline-trans-proline isomerization;,electrophoretic banding pattern; cis and trans isomers

Submission Details

ID: bfLkeK2W4

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:22 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Langsetmo K;Fuchs J;Woodward C,Biochemistry (1989) Escherichia coli thioredoxin folds into two compact forms of different stability to urea denaturation. PMID:2663067
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
100.0 Thioredoxin 1 P0AA27 THIO_ECO57
100.0 Thioredoxin 1 P0AA26 THIO_ECOL6
100.0 Thioredoxin 1 P0AA25 THIO_ECOLI
100.0 Thioredoxin 1 P0AA29 THIO_SALTI
100.0 Thioredoxin 1 P0AA28 THIO_SALTY
100.0 Thioredoxin 1 P0AA30 THIO_SHIFL