The urea-induced denaturation of Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin variants has been examined by electrophoresis on urea gradient slab gels by the method of Creighton [Creighton, T. (1986) Methods Enzymol. 131, 156-172]. Thioredoxin has only two cysteine residues, and these form a redox-active disulfide at the active site. Oxidized thioredoxin-S2 and reduced thioredoxin-(SH)2 each show two folded isomers with a large difference in stability to urea denaturation. The difference in stability is greater for the isomers of oxidized than for the isomers of reduced thioredoxin. At 2 degrees C, the urea concentrations at the denaturation midpoint are approximately 8 and 4.3 M for the oxidized isomers and 4.8 and 3.7 M for the reduced isomers. The difference between the gel patterns of samples applied in native versus denaturing buffer, and at 2 and 25 degrees C, is characteristic for the involvement of a cis-proline-trans-proline isomerization. The data very strongly suggest that the two folded forms of different stabilities correspond to the cis and trans isomers of the highly conserved Pro 76 peptide bond, which is cis in the crystal structure of oxidized thioredoxin. Urea gel experiments with the mutant thioredoxin P76A, with alanine substituted for proline at position 76, corroborate this interpretation. The electrophoretic banding pattern diagnostic for an involvement of proline isomerization in urea denaturation is not observed for oxidized P76A. In broad estimates of delta G degree for the native-denatured transition, the difference in delta G degree (no urea) between the putative cis and trans isomers of the Ile 75-Pro 76 peptide bond is approximately 3 kcal/mol for oxidized thioredoxin and approximately 1.5 kcal/mol for reduced thioredoxin. Since cis oxidized thioredoxin is much more stable than trans, folded oxidized thioredoxin is essentially all cis. In folded reduced thioredoxin, cis and trans interconvert slowly, on the minute time scale at 2 and 25 degrees C. In the absence of urea, the folded reduced thioredoxin is less than a few percent trans. Three additional mutants with additions or substitutions at the active site also show electrophoresis banding patterns consistent with a difference in stability between cis and trans isomers. Study holds ProTherm entries: 3802, 3803 Extra Details: redox-active disulfide; cis-proline-trans-proline isomerization;,electrophoretic banding pattern; cis and trans isomers
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:22 p.m.
|Number of data points||4|
|Proteins||Thioredoxin 1 ; Thioredoxin 1|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: dG|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence SDKIIHLTDDSFDTDVLKADGAILVDFWAEWCGPCKMIAPILDEIADEYQGKLTVAKLNIDQNPGTAPKYGIRGIPTLLLFKNGEVAATKVGALSKGQLKEFLDANLA|