General strategy to humanize a camelid single-domain antibody and identification of a universal humanized nanobody scaffold.


Abstract

Nanobodies, single-domain antigen-binding fragments of camelid-specific heavy-chain only antibodies offer special advantages in therapy over classic antibody fragments because of their smaller size, robustness, and preference to target unique epitopes. A Nanobody differs from a human heavy chain variable domain in about ten amino acids spread all over its surface, four hallmark Nanobody-specific amino acids in the framework-2 region (positions 42, 49, 50, and 52), and a longer third antigen-binding loop (H3) folding over this area. For therapeutic applications the camelid-specific amino acid sequences in the framework have to be mutated to their human heavy chain variable domain equivalent, i.e. humanized. We performed this humanization exercise with Nanobodies of the subfamily that represents close to 80% of all dromedary-derived Nanobodies and investigated the effects on antigen affinity, solubility, expression yield, and stability. It is demonstrated that the humanization of Nanobody-specific residues outside framework-2 are neutral to the Nanobody properties. Surprisingly, the Glu-49 --> Gly and Arg-50 --> Leu humanization of hallmark amino acids generates a single domain that is more stable though probably less soluble. The other framework-2 substitutions, Phe-42 --> Val and Gly/Ala-52 --> Trp, are detrimental for antigen affinity, due to a repositioning of the H3 loop as shown by their crystal structures. These insights were used to identify a soluble, stable, well expressed universal humanized Nanobody scaffold that allows grafts of antigen-binding loops from other Nanobodies with transfer of the antigen specificity and affinity.

Submission Details

ID: bZW5GyFv

Submitter: Shu-Ching Ou

Submission Date: Oct. 25, 2018, 5:23 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Vincke C;Loris R;Saerens D;Martinez-Rodriguez S;Muyldermans S;Conrath K,J Biol Chem (2009) General strategy to humanize a camelid single-domain antibody and identification of a universal humanized nanobody scaffold. PMID:19010777
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P
 

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)


Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
133L 1993-06-01T00:00:00+0000 1.77 ROLE OF ARG 115 IN THE CATALYTIC ACTION OF HUMAN LYSOZYME. X-RAY STRUCTURE OF HIS 115 AND GLU 115 MUTANTS
134L 1993-06-01T00:00:00+0000 1.77 ROLE OF ARG 115 IN THE CATALYTIC ACTION OF HUMAN LYSOZYME. X-RAY STRUCTURE OF HIS 115 AND GLU 115 MUTANTS
1B5U 1999-01-11T00:00:00+0000 1.8 CONTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS TO THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY OF HUMAN LYSOZYME: CALORIMETRY AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SIX SER->ALA MUTANT
1B5V 1999-01-11T00:00:00+0000 2.17 CONTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS TO THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY OF HUMAN LYSOZYME: CALORIMETRY AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SIX SER->ALA MUTANTS
1B5W 1999-01-11T00:00:00+0000 2.17 CONTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS TO THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY OF HUMAN LYSOZYME: CALORIMETRY AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SIX SER->ALA MUTANTS
1B5X 1999-01-11T00:00:00+0000 2.0 Contribution of hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of human lysozyme: calorimetry and x-ray analysis of six ser->ala mutants
1B5Y 1999-01-11T00:00:00+0000 2.2 CONTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS TO THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY OF HUMAN LYSOZYME: CALORIMETRY AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SIX SER->ALA MUTANTS
1B5Z 1999-01-11T00:00:00+0000 2.2 CONTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN BONDS TO THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY OF HUMAN LYSOZYME: CALORIMETRY AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SIX SER->ALA MUTANTS
1B7L 1999-01-24T00:00:00+0000 1.8 VERIFICATION OF SPMP USING MUTANT HUMAN LYSOZYMES
1B7M 1999-01-24T00:00:00+0000 2.2 VERIFICATION OF SPMP USING MUTANT HUMAN LYSOZYMES

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
96.9 B camelid VHH HL6 antibody fragment P79180 LYSC_HYLLA
99.2 B camelid VHH HL6 antibody fragment P79239 LYSC_PONPY
100.0 B camelid VHH HL6 antibody fragment P61628 LYSC_PANTR
100.0 B camelid VHH HL6 antibody fragment P61627 LYSC_PANPA
100.0 B camelid VHH HL6 antibody fragment P61626 LYSC_HUMAN
100.0 B camelid VHH HL6 antibody fragment P79179 LYSC_GORGO