The effects of hydrophobic core mutations on the stability and structure of the four-helix calcium-binding protein, calbindin D9k, have been investigated. Eleven mutations involving eight residues distributed within the hydrophobic core of calbindin D9k were examined. Stabilities were measured by denaturant and thermal induced unfolding monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The mutations were found to exert large effects on the stability with midpoints in the urea induced unfolding varying from 1.8 M for Leu23 --> Gly up to 6.6 M for Val70 --> Leu and free energies of unfolding in the absence of denaturant ranging from 6.6 to 27.4 kJ/mol for the Phe66 --> Ala mutant and the wild-type, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the difference in free energy of unfolding (Delta Delta GNU) and the change in the surface area of the side chain caused by the mutation, in agreement with other studies. Notably, both increases and decreases in side-chain surface area caused quantitatively equivalent effects on the stability. In other words, a correlation between the absolute value of the change in the surface of the side chain and Delta DeltaGNU was observed with a value of approximately 0.14 kJ M-1 A-2. The generality of this observation is discussed. Significant effects on the cooperativity of the unfolding reaction were also observed. However, a correlation between the cooperativity and Delta Delta GNU, which has been reported in other systems as an indication of effects of mutations on the unfolded state, was not observed for calbindin D9k. Despite the large effects on Delta Delta GNU and cooperativity, the structures of the mutants in the native form remained intact as indicated by circular dichroism, NMR, and fluorescence measurements. The structural response to calcium-binding was also conserved. The following paper in this issue [Kragelund, B. B., et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8926-8937] examines the effects of these mutations on the calcium binding properties of calbindin D9k. Study holds ProTherm entries: 9501, 9502, 9503, 9504, 9505, 9506, 9507, 9508, 9509, 9510, 9511, 9512 Extra Details: EGTA(0.5 mM) was added in the experiment hydrophobic core; fourhelix calcium-binding protein;,free energies of unfolding; cooperativity
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:38 p.m.
|Number of data points||47|
|Proteins||Protein S100-G ; Protein S100-G|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence KSPEELKGIFEKYAAKEGDPNQLSKEELKLLLQTEFPSLLKGPSTLDELFEELDKNGDGEVSFEEFQVLVKKISQ|