A "folding element" is a contiguous peptide segment crucial for a protein to be foldable and is a new concept that could assist in our understanding of the protein-folding problem. It is known that the presence of the complete set of folding elements of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli is essential for the protein to be foldable. Since almost all of the amino acid residues known to be involved in the early folding events of DHFR are located within the folding elements, a close relationship between the folding elements and early folding events is hypothesized. In order to test this hypothesis, we have investigated whether or not the early folding events are preserved in circular permutants and topological mutants of DHFR, in which the order of the folding elements is changed but the complete set of folding elements is present. The stopped-flow circular dichroism (CD) measurements show that the CD spectra at the early stages of folding are similar among the mutants and the wild-type DHFR, indicating that the presence of the complete set of folding elements is sufficient to preserve the early folding events. We have further examined whether or not sequence perturbation on the folding elements by a single amino acid substitution affects the early folding events of DHFR. The results show that the amino acid substitutions inside of the folding elements can affect the burst-phase CD spectra, whereas the substitutions outside do not. Taken together, these results indicate that the above hypothesis is true, suggesting a close relationship between the foldability of a protein and the early folding events. We propose that the folding elements interact with each other and coalesce to form a productive intermediate(s) early in the folding, and these early folding events are important for a protein to be foldable. Study holds ProTherm entries: 14392, 14393, 14394, 14395, 14396, 14397, 14398, 14399, 14400, 14401, 14402, 14403, 14404, 14405 Extra Details: 0.2 mM EDTA and 1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol were added in the experiment.,1RX4 was used as pdb code for this entry as mentioned by authors. protein folding; dihydrofolate reductase; folding elements;,foldability; circular permutations
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:45 p.m.
|Number of data points||69|
|Proteins||Dihydrofolate reductase ; Dihydrofolate reductase|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: activity_kcat ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Experimental Assay: activity_km ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence MISLIAALAVDRVIGMENAMPWNLPADLAWFKRNTLDKPVIMGRHTWESIGRPLPGRKNIILSSQPGTDDRVTWVKSVDEAIAACGDVPEIMVIGGGRVYEQFLPKAQKLYLTHIDAEVEGDTHFPDYEPDDWESVFSEFHDADAQNSHSYCFEILERR|