Contributions of the large hydrophobic amino acids to the stability of staphylococcal nuclease.


To quantitate the contributions of the large hydrophobic residues in staphylococcal nuclease to the stability of its native state, single alanine and glycine substitutions were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis for each of the 11 leucine, 9 valine, 7 tyrosine, 5 isoleucine, 4 methionine, and 3 phenylalanine residues. In addition, each isoleucine was also mutated to valine. The resulting collection of 83 mutant nucleases was submitted to guanidine hydrochloride denaturation using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence to monitor the equilibrium constant between the native and denatured states. From analysis of these data, each mutant protein's stability to reversible denaturation (delta GH2O) and sensitivity to guanidine hydrochloride (mGuHCl or d(delta G)/d[GuHCl]) were obtained. Four unexpected trends were observed. (1) A striking bipartite distribution was found for sites of mutations that altered mGuHCl: mutations that increased this parameter only involved residues that contribute side chains to the major hydrophobic core centered around a five-strand beta-barrel, whereas mutations that caused mGuHCl to decrease clustered around a second, smaller and less well-defined hydrophobic core. (2) The average stability loss for mutants in each of the six residue classes was 2-3 times greater than that estimated on the basis of the free energy of transfer of the hydrophobic side chain from water to n-octanol. (3) The magnitude of the stability loss on substituting Ala or Gly for a particular type of amino acid varied extensively among the different sites of its occurrence in nuclease, indicating that the environment surrounding a specific residue determines how large a stability contribution its side chain will make.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Study holds ProTherm entries: 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 Extra Details: Staphylococcal Nuclease; hydrophobic core; protein stability;,amino acid substitutions

Submission Details

ID: SBtkjpN44

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:15 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Shortle D;Stites WE;Meeker AK,Biochemistry (1990) Contributions of the large hydrophobic amino acids to the stability of staphylococcal nuclease. PMID:2261461
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)

Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
4WRD 2014-10-23T00:00:00+0000 1.65 Crystal structure of Staphylcoccal nulease variant Delta+PHS V66E L125E at cryogenic temperature
2LKV 2011-10-21T00:00:00+0000 0 Staphylococcal Nuclease PHS variant
2M00 2012-10-14T00:00:00+0000 0 Solution structure of staphylococcal nuclease E43S mutant in the presence of ssDNA and Cd2+
2OXP 2007-02-20T00:00:00+0000 2.0 Crystal Structure of Staphylococcal Nuclease mutant V66D/P117G/H124L/S128A
3D4W 2008-05-15T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS A109R at cryogenic temperature
3D8G 2008-05-23T00:00:00+0000 1.99 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS I72R at cryogenic temperature
3MVV 2010-05-04T00:00:00+0000 1.72 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS F34A at cryogenic temperature
3QOJ 2011-02-10T00:00:00+0000 1.6 Cryogenic structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant D+PHS/V23K
3QOL 2011-02-10T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant D+PHS/V23E at pH 6 determined at 100 K
3R3O 2011-03-16T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS T62A at cryogenic temperature and with high redundancy

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
99.3 Thermonuclease Q6GIK1 NUC_STAAR
99.3 Thermonuclease Q8NXI6 NUC_STAAW
99.3 Thermonuclease Q6GB41 NUC_STAAS
99.1 Thermonuclease Q7A6P2 NUC_STAAN
99.1 Thermonuclease Q99VJ0 NUC_STAAM
99.3 Thermonuclease Q5HHM4 NUC_STAAC
100.0 Thermonuclease P00644 NUC_STAAU