Contributions of the large hydrophobic amino acids to the stability of staphylococcal nuclease.


Abstract

To quantitate the contributions of the large hydrophobic residues in staphylococcal nuclease to the stability of its native state, single alanine and glycine substitutions were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis for each of the 11 leucine, 9 valine, 7 tyrosine, 5 isoleucine, 4 methionine, and 3 phenylalanine residues. In addition, each isoleucine was also mutated to valine. The resulting collection of 83 mutant nucleases was submitted to guanidine hydrochloride denaturation using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence to monitor the equilibrium constant between the native and denatured states. From analysis of these data, each mutant protein's stability to reversible denaturation (delta GH2O) and sensitivity to guanidine hydrochloride (mGuHCl or d(delta G)/d[GuHCl]) were obtained. Four unexpected trends were observed. (1) A striking bipartite distribution was found for sites of mutations that altered mGuHCl: mutations that increased this parameter only involved residues that contribute side chains to the major hydrophobic core centered around a five-strand beta-barrel, whereas mutations that caused mGuHCl to decrease clustered around a second, smaller and less well-defined hydrophobic core. (2) The average stability loss for mutants in each of the six residue classes was 2-3 times greater than that estimated on the basis of the free energy of transfer of the hydrophobic side chain from water to n-octanol. (3) The magnitude of the stability loss on substituting Ala or Gly for a particular type of amino acid varied extensively among the different sites of its occurrence in nuclease, indicating that the environment surrounding a specific residue determines how large a stability contribution its side chain will make.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Study holds ProTherm entries: 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501 Extra Details: Staphylococcal Nuclease; hydrophobic core; protein stability;,amino acid substitutions

Submission Details

ID: SBtkjpN44

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:15 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Shortle D;Stites WE;Meeker AK,Biochemistry (1990) Contributions of the large hydrophobic amino acids to the stability of staphylococcal nuclease. PMID:2261461
Additional Information

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