In a staphylococcal nuclease mutant the side-chain of a lysine replacing valine 66 is fully buried in the hydrophobic core.


Abstract

The crystal structure of the staphylococcal nuclease mutant V66K, in which valine 66 is replaced by lysine, has been solved at 1.97 A resolution. Unlike lysine residues in previously reported protein structures, this residue appears to bury its side-chain in the hydrophobic core without salt bridging, hydrogen bonding or other forms of electrostatic stabilization. Solution studies of the free energy of denaturation, delta GH2O, show marked pH dependence and clearly indicate that the lysine residue must be deprotonated in the folded state. V66K is highly unstable at neutral pH but only modestly less stable than the wild-type protein at high pH. The pH dependence of stability for V66K, in combination with similar measurements for the wild-type protein, allowed determination of the pKa values of the lysine in both the denatured and native forms. The epsilon-amine of this residue has a pKa value in the denatured state of 10.2, but in the native state it must be 6.4 or lower. The epsilon-amine is thus deprotonated in the folded molecule. These values enabled an estimation of the epsilon-amine's relative change in free energy of solvation between solvent and the protein interior at 5.1 kcal/mol or greater. This implies that the value of the dielectric constant of the protein interior must be less than 12.8. Lysine is usually found with the methylene groups of its side-chain partly buried but is nevertheless considered a hydrophilic surface residue. It would appear that the high pKa value of lysine, which gives it a positive charge at physiological pH, is the primary reason for its almost exclusive confinement to the surface proteins. When deprotonated, this amino acid type can be fully incorporated into the hydrophobic core. Study holds ProTherm entries: 1556, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, 1562, 1563 Extra Details: staphylococcal nuclease; protein stability; protein folding;,electrostatics

Submission Details

ID: LtT35cxN

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:17 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Stites WE;Gittis AG;Lattman EE;Shortle D,J. Mol. Biol. (1991) In a staphylococcal nuclease mutant the side-chain of a lysine replacing valine 66 is fully buried in the hydrophobic core. PMID:1920420
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P
 

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)


Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
4WRD 2014-10-23T00:00:00+0000 1.65 Crystal structure of Staphylcoccal nulease variant Delta+PHS V66E L125E at cryogenic temperature
2LKV 2011-10-21T00:00:00+0000 0 Staphylococcal Nuclease PHS variant
2M00 2012-10-14T00:00:00+0000 0 Solution structure of staphylococcal nuclease E43S mutant in the presence of ssDNA and Cd2+
2OXP 2007-02-20T00:00:00+0000 2.0 Crystal Structure of Staphylococcal Nuclease mutant V66D/P117G/H124L/S128A
3D4W 2008-05-15T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS A109R at cryogenic temperature
3D8G 2008-05-23T00:00:00+0000 1.99 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS I72R at cryogenic temperature
3MVV 2010-05-04T00:00:00+0000 1.72 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS F34A at cryogenic temperature
3QOJ 2011-02-10T00:00:00+0000 1.6 Cryogenic structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant D+PHS/V23K
3QOL 2011-02-10T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant D+PHS/V23E at pH 6 determined at 100 K
3R3O 2011-03-16T00:00:00+0000 1.9 Crystal structure of Staphylococcal nuclease variant Delta+PHS T62A at cryogenic temperature and with high redundancy

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
99.3 Thermonuclease Q6GIK1 NUC_STAAR
99.3 Thermonuclease Q8NXI6 NUC_STAAW
99.3 Thermonuclease Q6GB41 NUC_STAAS
99.1 Thermonuclease Q7A6P2 NUC_STAAN
99.1 Thermonuclease Q99VJ0 NUC_STAAM
99.3 Thermonuclease Q5HHM4 NUC_STAAC
100.0 Thermonuclease P00644 NUC_STAAU