The folding pathway of barnase: the rate-limiting transition state and a hidden intermediate under native conditions.


Abstract

The nature of the rate-limiting transition state at zero denaturant (TS(1)) and whether there are hidden intermediates are the two major unsolved problems in defining the folding pathway of barnase. In earlier studies, it was shown that TS(1) has small phi values throughout the structure of the protein, suggesting that the transition state has either a defined partially folded secondary structure with all side chains significantly exposed or numerous different partially unfolded structures with similar stability. To distinguish the two possibilities, we studied the effect of Gly mutations on the folding rate of barnase to investigate the secondary structure formation in the transition state. Two mutations in the same region of a beta-strand decreased the folding rate by 20- and 50-fold, respectively, suggesting that the secondary structures in this region are dominantly formed in the rate-limiting transition state. We also performed native-state hydrogen exchange experiments on barnase at pD 5.0 and 25 degrees C and identified a partially unfolded state. The structure of the intermediate was investigated using protein engineering and NMR. The results suggest that the intermediate has an omega loop unfolded. This intermediate is more folded than the rate-limiting transition state previously characterized at high denaturant concentrations (TS(2)). Therefore, it exists after TS(2) in folding. Consistent with this conclusion, the intermediate folds with the same rate and denaturant dependence as the wild-type protein, but unfolds faster with less dependence on the denaturant concentration. These and other results in the literature suggest that barnase folds through partially unfolded intermediates that exist after the rate-limiting step. Such folding behavior is similar to those of cytochrome c and Rd-apocyt b(562). Together, we suggest that other small apparently two-state proteins may also fold through hidden intermediates. Study holds ProTherm entries: 16909, 16910, 16911, 16912, 16913, 16914, 16915, 16916, 16917, 16918, 16919, 16920, 16921, 16922, 16923, 16924, 16925, 16926, 16927, 16928, 16929, 16930, 16931, 16932, 16933, 16934, 16935, 16936, 16937, 16938, 16939, 16940 Extra Details: Pseudo-wild type (p-WT) of barnase, in which a surface residue in the active site H102 is mutated to Ala. dCp value 1.7 kcal/mol/deg used for calculation. folding pathway; transition state; secondary structure; hidden intermediates

Submission Details

ID: JsyeaYJB4

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:48 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Vu ND;Feng H;Bai Y,Biochemistry (2004) The folding pathway of barnase: the rate-limiting transition state and a hidden intermediate under native conditions. PMID:15035606
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P
 

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)


Relevant PDB Entries

Structure ID Release Date Resolution Structure Title
2KF3 2009-12-08 Barnase, low pressure reference NMR structure
2KF4 2009-12-08 Barnase high pressure structure
1FW7 2003-06-10 NMR STRUCTURE OF 15N-LABELED BARNASE
1BNR 1995-07-31 BARNASE
2KF5 2009-12-08 Barnase bound to d(CGAC), low pressure
2KF6 2009-12-08 Barnase bound to d(CGAC) high pressure
2C4B 2005-11-21 1.3 Inhibitor cystine knot protein McoEeTI fused to the catalytically inactive barnase mutant H102A
1A2P 1998-04-29 1.5 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT 1.5 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
2ZA4 2008-05-20 1.58 Crystal Structural Analysis of Barnase-barstar Complex
1B20 1998-12-09 1.7 DELETION OF A BURIED SALT-BRIDGE IN BARNASE
1BRN 1994-01-31 1.76 SUBSITE BINDING IN AN RNASE: STRUCTURE OF A BARNASE-TETRANUCLEOTIDE COMPLEX AT 1.76 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
1B2X 1998-12-09 1.8 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT PH 7.5 FROM A CRYO_COOLED CRYSTAL AT 100K
1B2S 1998-12-08 1.82 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
1RNB 1992-07-15 1.9 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A BARNASE-D(*GP*C) COMPLEX AT 1.9 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION
1X1Y 2005-04-26 1.9 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1BRI 1995-07-10 1.9 BARNASE MUTANT WITH ILE 76 REPLACED BY ALA
3KCH 2010-03-09 1.94 Baranase crosslinked by glutaraldehyde
2F5M 2006-04-25 1.95 Cross-linked barnase soaked in bromo-ethanol
2F56 2006-04-25 1.96 Barnase cross-linked with glutaraldehyde soaked in 6M urea
1BNF 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE T70C/S92C DISULFIDE MUTANT
1B21 1998-12-09 2.0 DELETION OF A BURIED SALT BRIDGE IN BARNASE
1BSC 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1BSE 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1BRS 1994-06-22 2.0 PROTEIN-PROTEIN RECOGNITION: CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A BARNASE-BARSTAR COMPLEX AT 2.0-A RESOLUTION
1BRH 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE MUTANT WITH LEU 14 REPLACED BY ALA
1BSA 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
2F5W 2006-04-25 2.0 Cross-linked barnase soaked in 3 M thiourea
1BRK 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE MUTANT WITH ILE 96 REPLACED BY ALA
1BSB 1994-01-31 2.0 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1BRJ 1995-07-10 2.0 BARNASE MUTANT WITH ILE 88 REPLACED BY ALA
1B2Z 1998-12-09 2.03 DELETION OF A BURIED SALT BRIDGE IN BARNASE
1BNS 1994-06-22 2.05 STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF BARNASE MUTANTS
1X1W 2005-04-26 2.1 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1BNE 1995-07-10 2.1 BARNASE A43C/S80C DISULFIDE MUTANT
1B27 1998-12-09 2.1 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
1BNJ 1995-09-15 2.1 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT PH 9.0
1BNG 1995-07-10 2.1 BARNASE S85C/H102C DISULFIDE MUTANT
1BNI 1995-09-15 2.1 BARNASE WILDTYPE STRUCTURE AT PH 6.0
1B2U 1998-12-09 2.1 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
2F4Y 2006-04-25 2.15 Barnase cross-linked with glutaraldehyde
3Q3F 2012-01-25 2.17 Engineering Domain-Swapped Binding Interfaces by Mutually Exclusive Folding: Insertion of Ubiquitin into position 103 of Barnase
1BRG 1994-06-22 2.2 CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF PHE->LEU SUBSTITUTION IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORE OF BARNASE
1BAN 1993-10-31 2.2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF BURIED HYDROGEN BONDS TO PROTEIN STABILITY: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF TWO BARNASE MUTANTS
1YVS 1999-02-02 2.2 Trimeric domain swapped barnase
1BAO 1993-10-31 2.2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF BURIED HYDROGEN BONDS TO PROTEIN STABILITY: THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF TWO BARNASE MUTANTS
3DA7 2009-04-14 2.25 A conformationally strained, circular permutant of barnase
1X1U 2005-04-26 2.3 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1BSD 1994-01-31 2.3 CRYSTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS IN THE HYDROPHOBIC CORES OF BARNASE
1X1X 2005-04-26 2.3 Water-mediate interaction at aprotein-protein interface
1B3S 1998-12-09 2.39 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO MUTATION AT A PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERFACE
1BGS 1994-04-30 2.6 RECOGNITION BETWEEN A BACTERIAL RIBONUCLEASE, BARNASE, AND ITS NATURAL INHIBITOR, BARSTAR

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
97.3 Ribonuclease P35078 RN_BACCI
100.0 Ribonuclease P00648 RNBR_BACAM