One of the necessary conditions for a protein to be foldable is the presence of a complete set of folding elements (FEs) that are short contiguous peptide segments distributed over an amino acid sequence. Previous studies indicated the FE assembly model of protein folding, in which the FEs interact with each other and coalesce to form an intermediate(s) early in the folding reaction. This suggests that a clue to the understanding of the determinants of protein foldability can be found by investigating how the FEs interact with each other early in the folding and thereby elucidating roles of the FEs in protein folding. To reveal the formation process of FE-FE interactions, we studied the early folding events of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) utilizing systematic sequence perturbation analysis. Here, systematic single amino acid substitutions were introduced inside of the FEs (W30X in FE2, V40X in FE3, N59X in FE4, and I155X in FE10; X refers to various amino acid residues), and their kinetic refolding reactions were measured by stopped-flow circular dichroism and fluorescence. We show that the interactions around Trp30 and Ile155 are formed in the burst phase intermediate, while those around Val40 and Asn59 are formed in the transition state of the subsequent folding phase (tau5-phase) and in much later processes, respectively. These and previous results suggest that FE2 and FE10, and also FE1 and FE7, involved in the loop subdomain of DHFR, interact with each other within a millisecond time range, while the stable FE3-FE4 interactions are formed in the later processes. This may highlight the important roles of the FEs mainly inside of the loop subdomain in formation of the burst phase intermediate having a hydrophobic cluster and native-like overall topology and in acquisition of the foldability of DHFR. Study holds ProTherm entries: 18575, 18576, 18577, 18578, 18579, 18580, 18581, 18582, 18583, 18584, 18585, 18586, 18587, 18588, 18589, 18590, 18591, 18592, 18593, 18594, 18595, 18596, 18597, 18598, 18599, 18600, 18601, 18602, 18603, 18604, 18605, 18606, 18607, 18608, 18609, 18610, 18611, 18612, 18613, 18614, 18615, 18616, 18617, 18618, 18619, 18620, 18621, 18622, 18623, 18624, 18625, 18626 Extra Details: 0.2 mM EDTA and 1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol were added in the experiment protein folding; foldability; folding elements; dihydrofolate reductase; systematic sequence perturbation analysis
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:50 p.m.
|Number of data points||207|
|Proteins||Dihydrofolate reductase ; Dihydrofolate reductase|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence MISLIAALAVDRVIGMENAMPWNLPADLAWFKRNTLDKPVIMGRHTWESIGRPLPGRKNIILSSQPGTDDRVTWVKSVDEAIAACGDVPEIMVIGGGRVYEQFLPKAQKLYLTHIDAEVEGDTHFPDYEPDDWESVFSEFHDADAQNSHSYCFEILERR|