Protein folding in classical perspective: folding of horse cytochrome c.


Proteins meet with the stipulations of Levinthal. Two test tube variants of ferrocytochrome c (ferrocyt c) whose thermodynamic stabilities are vastly different refold to the same global minimum under a given final native condition, and they do so quickly at rates that do not reflect a strong dependence on the thermodynamic driving force. The transition-state ensemble is more unfolded-like, and the folding barrier offered is energetically sizable. The experiments involve neutral- (pH 7) and alkaline ferrocyt c pH (12.7), whose aqueous stabilities are 18 (+/-0.3) and 3 (+/-0.5) kcal mol(-)(1), respectively. But the large disparity in thermodynamic stability is not strongly reflected in their refolding rates. Cross-pH studies, where GdnHCl-unfolded states of neutral- and alkaline ferrocyt c are allowed to refold to the same final pH and denaturant concentration, indicate that the refolding rates are largely independent of the stability, configuration, ionization, and solvation of the initial unfolded state. Also, burst relaxation signals in cross-pH refolding runs show the same quantitative dependence on GdnHCl, suggesting that the earliest relaxation or reconfiguration of the chains must be the same and is independent of the initial equilibrium unfolded state. Analyses along the classical line indicate an early transition state where much less than a third of the protein surface that is buried in the native state becomes buried. The barrier energy is of the order of 10 k(B)T. The results, apparently inconsistent with the predictions of the funnel model, afford a mechanistic description of folding in which the folding time of small single-domain proteins is set by the time needed for the denatured polypeptide to search-find a nativelike topology. Study holds ProTherm entries: 18672, 18673 Extra Details: transition-state ensemble; folding barrier; refolding rates; funnel model

Submission Details

ID: Gy2GaPoY3

Submitter: Connie Wang

Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:50 p.m.

Version: 1

Publication Details
Bhuyan AK;Rao DK;Prabhu NP,Biochemistry (2005) Protein folding in classical perspective: folding of horse cytochrome c. PMID:15723547
Additional Information

Structure view and single mutant data analysis

Study data

No weblogo for data of varying length.
Colors: D E R H K S T N Q A V I L M F Y W C G P

Data Distribution

Studies with similar sequences (approximate matches)

Correlation with other assays (exact sequence matches)

Relevant UniProtKB Entries

Percent Identity Matching Chains Protein Accession Entry Name
100.0 Cytochrome c P00004 CYC_HORSE
99.0 Cytochrome c P68097 CYC_EQUAS
99.0 Cytochrome c P68096 CYC_EQUBU
97.1 Cytochrome c P62894 CYC_BOVIN
97.1 Cytochrome c P62895 CYC_PIG
97.1 Cytochrome c P62896 CYC_SHEEP
94.3 Cytochrome c P00007 CYC_HIPAM
95.2 Cytochrome c P68099 CYC_CAMDR
95.2 Cytochrome c P68100 CYC_ESCRO
95.2 Cytochrome c P68098 CYC_LAMGU
94.3 Cytochrome c P62897 CYC_MOUSE
94.3 Cytochrome c P00008 CYC_RABIT
94.3 Cytochrome c P62898 CYC_RAT
94.3 Cytochrome c P00011 CYC_CANLF
93.3 Cytochrome c P00014 CYC_MACGI
93.3 Cytochrome c P00013 CYC_MINSC
93.3 Cytochrome c Q52V09 CYC_CEPBA
93.3 Cytochrome c P00012 CYC_MIRLE
90.5 Cytochrome c Q52V10 CYC_SAISC
92.3 Cytochrome c P81280 CYC_ALLMI
92.2 Cytochrome c P00020 CYC_ANAPL
91.3 Cytochrome c P00021 CYC_COLLI
90.3 Cytochrome c B4USV4 CYC_OTOGA