Many of the interactions that stabilize proteins are co-operative and cannot be reduced to a sum of pairwise interactions. Such interactions may be analysed by protein engineering methods using multiple thermodynamic cycles comprising wild-type protein and all combinations of mutants in the interacting residues. There is a triad of charged residues on the surface of barnase, comprising residues Asp8, Asp12 and Arg110, that interact by forming two exposed salt bridges. The three residues have been mutated to alanine to give all the single, double and triple mutants. The free energies of unfolding of wild-type and the seven mutant proteins have been determined and the results analysed to give the contributions of the residues in the two salt bridges to protein stability. It is possible to isolate the energies of forming the salt bridges relative to the solvation of the separated ions by water. In the intact triad, the apparent contribution to the stabilization energy of the protein of the salt bridge between Asp12 and Arg110 is -1.25 kcal mol-1, whereas that of the salt bridge between Asp8 with Arg110 is -0.98 kcal mol-1. The strengths of the two salt bridges are coupled: the energy of each is reduced by 0.77 kcal mol-1 when the other is absent. The salt-linked triad, relative to alanine residues at the same positions, does not contribute to the stability of the protein since the favourable interactions of the salt bridges are more than offset by other electrostatic and non-electrostatic energy terms. Salt-linked triads occur in other proteins, for example, haemoglobin, where the energy of only the salt-bridge term is important and so the coupling of salt bridges could be of general importance to the stability and function of proteins. Study holds ProTherm entries: 9235, 9236, 9237, 9238, 9239, 9240, 9241, 9242 Extra Details:
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:37 p.m.
|Number of data points||31|
|Proteins||Ribonuclease ; Ribonuclease|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence AQVINTFDGVADYLQTYHKLPDNYITKSEAQALGWVASKGNLADVAPGKSIGGDIFSNREGKLPGKSGRTWREADINYTSGFRNSDRILYSSDWLIYKTTDHYQTFTKIR|