Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) is the founding member of the INK4 family of tumor suppressors capable of arresting mammalian cell division. Missense mutations in the p16(INK4a) gene (INK4a/CDKN2A/MTS1) are strongly linked to several types of human cancer. These mutations are evenly distributed throughout this small, ankyrin repeat protein and the majority of them disrupt the native secondary and/or tertiary structure, leading to protein unfolding, aggregation and loss of function. We report here the use of multiple stabilizing substitutions to increase the stability of p16(INK4a) and furthermore, to restore Cdk4 binding activity of several defective, cancer-related mutant proteins. Stabilizing substitutions were predicted using four different techniques. The three most effective substitutions were combined to create a hyperstable p16(INK4a) variant that is 1.4 kcal/mol more stable than wild-type. This engineered construct is monomeric in solution with wild-type-like secondary and tertiary structure and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 binding activity. Interestingly, these hyperstable substitutions, when combined with oncogenic mutations R24P, P81L or V126D, can significantly restore Cdk4 binding activity, despite the divergent features of each destabilizing mutation. Extensive biophysical studies indicate that the hyperstable substitutions enhance the binding activity of mutant p16 through several different mechanisms, including an increased amount of secondary structure and thermostability, reduction in exposed hydrophobic surface(s) and/or a reduced tendency to aggregate. This apparent global suppressor effect suggests that increasing the thermodynamic stability of p16 can be used as a general strategy to restore the biological activity to defective mutants of this important tumor suppressor protein. Study holds ProTherm entries: 15950, 15951, 15952, 15953, 15954, 15955, 15956, 15957, 15958, 15959, 15960, 15961, 15962, 15963, 15964, 15965 Extra Details: 1mM EDTA and 1mM DTT were added in the experiment p16INK4a; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; cancer-related mutations; protein design; stability
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:46 p.m.
|Number of data points||40|
|Proteins||Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A ; Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: Cm ; Experimental Assay: m ; Experimental Assay: dG_H2O ; Experimental Assay: Tm ; Derived Quantity: ddG_H2O ; Derived Quantity: dTm|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence MEPAAGSSMEPSADWLATAAARGRVEEVRALLEAGALPNAPNSYGRRPIQVMMMGSARVAELLLLHGAEPNCADPATLTRPVHDAAREGFLDTLVVLHRAGARLDVRDAWGRLPVDLAEELGHRDVARYLRAAAGGTRGSNHARIDAAEGPSDIPD|