An Escherichia coli expression vector, containing the alkaline phosphatase promoter and the stII heat-stable enterotoxin signal sequence, along with the cDNA of the kringle 1 (K1) region of human plasminogen (HPg), has been employed to express into the periplasmic space amino acid residues 82-163 (E163----D) of HPg. This region of the molecule contains the entire K1 domain (residues C84-C162) of HPg, as well as two non-kringle amino-terminal amino acids (S82-E83) that are present in their normal locations in HPg and a carboxyl-terminal amino acid, D163, that results from mutation of the E163, normally present at this location in the HPg amino acid sequence. After purification of r-K1 by chromatographic techniques, we have investigated its omega-amino acid binding properties by titration calorimetry, intrinsic fluorescence, and differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC). The antifibrinolytic agent, epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), possesses a single binding site for r-K1. The thermodynamic properties of this interaction, studied by calorimetric titrations of the heats of binding with this ligand, reveal a Kd of 12 +/- 2 microM at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4, a corresponding delta G of -6.7 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol, a delta H of -3.6 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol, and a delta S of 10.5 +/- 0.8 eu. The intrinsic fluorescence of r-K1 decreases by approximately 44% when its binding site is saturated with EACA, and titrations of this perturbation with EACA lead to calculation of a Kd of approximately 13 microM, a value in good agreement with that obtained from titration calorimetric analysis. EACA represents the strongest binding ligand of a variety of simple aliphatic omega-amino acids examined. A cyclic analogue of EACA, trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, interacts with r-K1 with an approximate 12-fold tighter Kd (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM). Investigations by DSC, at pH 7.4, demonstrate that a significant stabilization of the r-K1 structure occurs when EACA binds to this domain. The temperature of maximum heat capacity change (Tm) in the thermal denaturation of r-K1 increases from approximately 340.8 to 359.1 K as a consequence of EACA binding. These studies demonstrate that a fully functional EACA-binding kringle from HPg can be expressed and secreted in E. coli, purified by techniques that do not require refolding, and investigated as an independent structural unit. Study holds ProTherm entries: 4246 Extra Details: omega-amino acid binding properties; thermodynamic properties;,binding ligand; independent structural unit
Submitter: Connie Wang
Submission Date: April 24, 2018, 8:25 p.m.
|Number of data points||2|
|Proteins||Plasminogen ; Plasminogen|
|Assays/Quantities/Protocols||Experimental Assay: dHcal ; Experimental Assay: Tm|
|Libraries||Mutations for sequence LSECKTGNGKNYRGTMSKTKNGITCQKWSSTSPHRPRFSPATHPSEGLEENYCRNPDNDPQGPWCYTTDPEKRYDYCDILECEEECMH|